- Vision of the People of God (believers), alluding to their faithfulness during the period of distress; they give praise to God and/or the exalted Jesus (the Lamb), and anticipate the final establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth.
- Vision of the end-time coming (return) of the Exalted Jesus, as a conquering warrior, drawing upon Messianic imagery.
- Vision of the Judgment of the Nations, their defeat and destruction in a bloody battle.
The first of these visions in chapter 19 occurred in verses 1-10, discussed in the previous notes. The second vision, of the return of Jesus to earth, is presented in verses 11-16. It is rather interesting that the return of Jesus, so central to early Christian eschatology, is so rarely referenced directly in the book of Revelation, being described only briefly in the visions of 14:14-16 and here in 19:11-16 (cf. also 1:7). By comparison, the end-time period of distress and the great Judgment upon the earth are given extensive and detailed treatment across the three major vision-cycles, along with other intervening visions. The simple sequence in chapters 14 and 19 more accurately reflects the basic eschatological outlook of early Christians, with a very simple chronology:
- The period of distress (qli/yi$), during which believers were already living, and which would continue, becoming much more intense and severe, for an indeterminate (but relatively short) length of time.
- The return of Jesus, as the Anointed One of God, to deliver the righteous (believers) and usher in the Judgment
- The Judgment upon the wicked and the nations of earth
“And I saw the heaven having been opened, and see—! a white horse, and the (one) sitting upon it [being called] trust(worthy) and true, and in justice he judges and makes war.”
The primary image here is of a conquering warrior—a ruler on horseback leading his army into battle. The color white, though it may also represent purity and holiness in the book of Revelation, here more properly signifies victory, as in the white horse of the seal-visions (6:2). There the rider on the white horse was a negative image, depicting the suffering associated with the period of distress; here, it is a positive image of the exalted Jesus’ return. In Greco-Roman tradition, victorious military leaders sometimes rode white horses (Herodotus 7.40; 9.63; Dio Cassius 43.14.3; Koester, p. 753).
This conquering-warrior imagery is joined to the idea of God judging the world. As His Anointed One (Messiah), Jesus acts as God’s representative, inaugurating the end-time Judgment and overseeing it. He acts according to God’s own justice, and does so faithfully; this is why he is called “trustworthy and true” (pisto\$ kai\ a)lhqino/$, also in 3:14), it reflects his character as God’s Anointed representative. The main Messianic aspect here involves the Davidic Ruler figure-type (on which, cf. Parts 6–8 of the series “Yeshua the Anointed”). The description alludes specifically to Isaiah 11:1-4, a key passage for the tradition of the defeat of the nations by God’s Messiah, functioning as a conquering military hero. This is an aspect of the Davidic Messiah which Jesus clearly did not fulfill in his lifetime, and could only be realized upon his return to earth at the end-time.
The visionary detail of the heaven “having been opened” foreshadows the action of God in bringing the Judgment, a sign that it was about to begin (cf. 11:19; 15:5; Isa 64:1; 3 Macc 6:18-19); moreover, the manifestation of ‘armies’ marching in heaven (its sound, etc) was traditionally viewed as a sign of corresponding conflict that would take place on earth (Josephus, War 6.298-9; Tacitus Histories 5.13, etc; Koester, p. 752).
“And his eyes (were) [as] a flame of fire, and upon his head (were) many strips bound around, holding a name having been written (on them) that no one has seen, if not he (him)self, and having thrown about (him) a garment having been dipped in blood, and his name has been called: The Lo/go$ of God.”
The features of this conquering figure represent a combination of Divine and Messianic/Christological details:
- “eyes as a flame of fire” —a symbol of divine, heavenly power (e.g. Dan 10:6), which also was an attribute of the exalted Jesus in the introductory vision (1:14)
- “many strips bound round (his head)” —these diadh/mata were honorific strips of cloth, worn around the head by kings and rulers (a common feature in the Greco-Roman tradition).
- “a garment thrown about him having been dipped in blood” —royal figures often wore purple-dyed garments, but the garment of this ruler was been dyed with blood (like the reddish purple ‘blood’ of grapes). Here the symbolism is two-fold: (1) the blood refers to Jesus’ sacrificial death (as well as the death of believers who follow his example), and (2) it prefigures the blood of those to be slain in the coming Judgment. Both aspects are emphasized throughout the book of Revelation (1:5; 5:9; 6:10-12; 7:14; 12:11; 16:3-6, etc), but the immediate reference is to the vision of 14:17-20, where the Judgment on the Nations is symbolized by the ‘blood’ of the grape-harvest (cf. Joel 3:13; Isa 63:1-3).
Of special interest are the two names mentioned in these verses:
- The first name was, apparently, written on the bands (diadems) around his head; the syntax is unclear, and it is possible that the name was written in a different (unspecified) location, but throughout the book of Revelation we find the motif of a name written on the (fore)head. It is said that no one has seen (or known) this name, except for this ruler (Jesus) himself. There is a long (and ancient) religious tradition involving hidden or secret names—including hidden names of God. Just as the Sea-creature held names insulting to God on his head(s) (13:1), so the exalted Jesus holds a name honoring to God, which is itself a Divine name, indicating his divine status and position. In the Johannine Last Discourse (the great Prayer-Discourse of chap. 17), Jesus is the one who makes the name of the Father known to humankind (believers), and he, the Son, is the only one who knows it (17:6, 11-12, 25-26). Closer to the sense of our passage here is the Christ-Hymn of Philippians 2:6-11, where the exalted Jesus is given “the name th(at is) over every name” (v. 9).
- The second name is not written, but called—i.e. it is spoken, or said, of the exalted Jesus. Here this name is stated: “the Lo/go$ of God”. The noun lo/go$ is notoriously difficult to translate consistently in English, especially when applied in a Christological context (“word” fits as good as anything). The usage in the Gospel of John (esp. 1:1, 14) could be seen as confirming the traditional Johannine character of the book of Revelation (i.e., in relation to the Gospel and Letters). Here, lo/go$ is unquestionably used as a divine title. I would suggest that its significance must be understood in the context of the book, where, as outlined especially in the opening verses (1:1-2), we have the important idea of Jesus as God’s witness. He speaks on God the Father’s behalf, as His representative, and thus embodies God’s word, the prophetic account (lo/go$) of the Divine will and purpose which is given out to the People of God. It may also signify the word of God’s judgment.