In the previous note, I presented the Synoptic narrative outline, as represented by the Gospel of Mark, along with a more detailed breakdown of the traditions in Mk 3:13-8:30, the second half of the Galilean period (1:14-8:30). Today, I want to look at how this material was developed by Luke and Matthew. In particular, I will focus on Luke’s treatment of the Synoptic/Markan traditions.
First, here again is the outline of Mk 3:13-6:13:
- Calling the Twelve—3:13-19
- Reaction to Jesus’ ministry—his natural vs. true family; 3 traditions joined together:
3:20-21, 22-30, 31-35
- Parables of Jesus—4:1-34, a distinct block (or sub-unit) of traditional material, organized as follows:
- Miracle (Calming the Storm): Jesus with the Disciples together in the boat—4:35-41
- Healing Miracles: 2 Episodes (3 miracles)—5:1-20, 21-43
- Reaction to Jesus’ ministry—his natural vs. true family; episode at Nazareth—6:1-6a
- Mission of the Twelve—6:6b-13
The green above indicates portions which Luke appears to have either re-worked or presents in a different order:
- Luke reverses the order (6:12-16, 17-19) of the material corresponding to Mk 3:7-12, 13-19, reworking it to some extent
- In 8:4-21, also the material corr. to Mk 3:31-35 & 4:1-25 is reversed and set in a different narrative context (omitting Mk 3:20-30)
- Luke has a quite different (and expanded) version of the episode at Nazareth (Mk 6:1-6a), and it is set in a different location—at the very beginning of Jesus’ Galilean ministry (Lk 4:16-30); cf. the earlier note on this passage
Besides the ‘additions’ to the Nazareth episode (mentioned above), Luke has also included a considerable amount of material at a point corresponding to Mk 3:19. Here is the Lukan outline, with Markan parallels in parentheses:
- Calling of the Twelve—6:12-16 (Mk 3:13-19)
- Summary of Jesus’ ministry activity—6:17-19 (Mk 3:7-12)
- The “Sermon on the Plain”—6:20-49 [Q]
- Healing Miracle—7:1-10 [Q?]
- Healing Miracle—7:11-17 [L]
- John the Baptist and Jesus—7:18-35 [Q]
- Anointing of Jesus episode—7:36-50 [L]
- Introduction/summary of Jesus with his disciples—8:1-3 [L]
- Parable of the Sower (& the Lamp)—8:4-18 (Mk 4:1-25)
- Episode/saying re. Jesus’ mother and brothers—8:19-21 (Mk 3:31-35)
From this point, Luke 8:22-9:6 follows Mk 4:35-5:43 + 6:6b-13. It is important to consider the additional Lukan material (6:20-8:3), which is comprised of six distinct units set in sequence. “Q” indicates the so-called Q-material, shared by Matthew and Luke, but not found in Mark. “L” refers to traditions found only in Luke. There are three “L” traditions included here:
- 7:11-17: a healing miracle story—the raising of the dead son of the widow at Nain.
- 7:36-50: an encounter story (with a parable), involving the traditional motif of conflict/debate between Jesus and the Pharisees—the anointing of Jesus by the “sinful” woman. This tradition is quite similar to, but not identical with, Mk 14:3-19, and will be discussed in an upcoming note.
- 8:1-3: a narrative summary, probably of Lukan composition, but containing traditional/historical information.
The traditions in 7:11-17 and 36-50 are very much in keeping with the episodes of the core Synoptic Tradition (cf. the previous note), though 7:36-50 shows definite signs of literary development. The “Q” material is rather different, and indicates that it has been derived from a separate (and early) line of tradition.
Many scholars believe that “Q” was an actual source document, comprised mainly of a collection of sayings by Jesus. These sayings, at an early point, were joined together, by way of thematic and “catchword” bonding, to form small units, which then could be collected/grouped into larger sections of sayings-material. “Q”, if it existed at all as a specific text, would have been made up of these larger sections, two of which are found at this point in Luke:
1. The “Sermon on the Plain” (Lk 6:20-49), which follows the basic outline of the “Sermon on the Mount” in Matthew (chapters 5-7). Despite the narrative setting in each Gospel, which presents the material as a single “sermon” given by Jesus, most (critical) commentators believe that it is better understood as a collection of sayings, parables, and teachings by Jesus, which represents the sort of instruction he gave regularly to his disciples. Matthew’s version contains considerably more material, some of which is found in a different location in Luke. Moreover, there are some significant differences in wording and emphasis, especially in the Beatitudes (cf. my earlier series on the Beatitudes for more detail). Here is a breakdown of the Lukan “sermon”:
- The Beatitudes (Blessings) and corresponding Woes—6:20-26 (Matt 5:3-12 [blessings only])
- Ethical instructions (sayings/teaching) on loving one’s enemies—6:27-36 (Matt 5:38-48)
- Teaching/sayings on judging others—6:37-38 (Matt 7:1-2)
- A short parable/illustration—6:39 (cf. Matt 15:14)
- A saying on discipleship—6:40 (cf. Matt 10:24)
- Teaching on judging others—6:41-42 (Matt 7:3-5)
- Parable of the tree and its fruit—6:43-45 (Matt 7:18-20)
- A saying on discipleship—6:46 (cf. Matt 7:21)
- Parable of the house and its foundation—6:47-49 (Matt 7:24-27)
Luke and Matthew have each arranged several distinct units of “Q” material (sayings and parables, etc) to form a sermon or discourse. Notably, each Gospel writer (independently) has set this in the context of Jesus gathering his disciples together and instructing them (Matt 4:18ff; 5:1-2; Luke 6:12-16, 17)—though in each Gospel it occurs at a slightly different point in the narrative.
2. Jesus and John the Baptist (Lk 7:18-35). I have discussed this section briefly in the earlier notes of this series on the Baptism of Jesus. Again, while it would seem that the material in vv. 18-35 is all part of a single discourse by Jesus, this more likely reflects the thematic joining of a number of different traditions during the (early) process of collection and transmission. Clearly, the common theme involved is John the Baptist and his relation to Jesus. In my view, this is a mark of very early historical tradition, as the interest in John the Baptist soon faded among Christians in the New Testament period. There is less variation between the versions of this material in Matthew and Luke, than for the earlier “Sermon” (cf. above); both Gospels preserve it as a distinct block of tradition. Here is how it appears in Luke:
- The question from John with Jesus’ answer (citing Isa 29:18; 35:5-6; 61:1ff)—7:18-23 (Matt 11:2-6)
- Jesus’ testimony regarding John (citing Mal 3:1)—7:24-27 (Matt 11:7-10)
- Saying regarding John and the Kingdom of God/Heaven—7:28 (Matt 11:11)
- [Parenthetical statement by the author, drawing upon historical tradition]—7:29-30
- Parable illustrating the public reaction to John and Jesus—7:31-35 (Matt 11:16-19)
It is worth noting the portions in Matthew’s version which are not found in Luke (or occur in a different location):
Interestingly, while this Q-material in Luke follows generally after Jesus’ calling the Twelve (6:12-16) and the “Sermon” (6:20-49), in Matthew it occurs at a different (though similar) point in the narrative. The calling and subsequent mission of the Twelve is narrated together (Matt 10:1-5f), followed by an entirely separate collection of instruction (or “sermon”) for the disciples (10:5-42).
This brief, though detailed, analysis demonstrates the creative work of each Gospel writer in selecting, adapting, and arranging traditional material. Many of the themes and contours of the narrative are the same in each Gospel, but the overall presentation and thematic structure differs considerably. This is all the more true when we consider how the (historical) traditions have been developed and arranged in the Gospel of John. I will be examining this in the next note.