(After a short hiatus, I am picking up again with my series of period notes on the subject of the spirit [specifically, the use of the word jwr] in the Qumran texts.)
1QH 6, continued
(Unless otherwise noted, the translations of 1QH are my own.)
Lines 12-33 of column VI were discussed in the previous note. Most commentators recognize a new hymn beginning at line 34, and restore the initial word as i[dwa] (;d=oa), “I give you thanks/praise”, lit. “I throw you (thanks/praise)”, to reflect this. Even if this division is correct, it is still difficult to know if (or how far) the hymn extends beyond line 41. It may well have continued on into the missing lines (1-10f) of column VII; the DJD editors (p. 99) suggest that the hymn concludes with VII.20.
As for the certain portion we have (VI.34-41), it begins with lines of thanksgiving and praise to YHWH:
“[I throw] you (praise), my Lord,
according to (the) great(ness) of your strength
and (the) abundance of your wonders,
from (the) distant (past) even to (the) distan[t (future)—
abundant in (act)s of lov]e and great in [(deed)s of kind]ness,
granting forgiveness to (those) turning back (from) a breach (of trust),
yet dealing with (the) crookedness of (the) wicked
in (the) willingness of their [heart].
But you hate crookedness unto (the) end!” (ll. 34-36a)
In the next portion, the hymnist reflects on how YHWH has dealt with him personally, identifying himself as a faithful servant (dbu) of God, much in the manner that we have seen in the prior hymns:
“And I [i.e. as for me], your servant, you have favored me with the spirit of knowledge, (so as) to [choose fir]mness [and right]ness, and to abhor every way of crookedness [i.e. crooked way]” (ll. 36b-37a)
This repeats a typical theme of the Hymns—namely, a recognition (by the author/protagonist) that one’s ability to remain faithful to YHWH is due to a favor (root /nj) granted to the individual by God Himself. This favor comes in the form of a spirit (j^Wr) given by God. It is thus a Divine spirit, in that it comes from God and reflects His own nature and character. We have seen this use of the noun j^Wr in the previous hymns we have examined.
Also, according to the prior usage, j^Wr occurs in a construct expression (i.e., “spirit of…”), where the qualifying term (noun or adjectival substantive) defines the particular Divine attribute or characteristic in focus. Here the term is tu^D^, “knowledge”, emphasizing that it is Divine knowledge that the spirit brings to the protagonist. This was stated earlier in 5:36:
“And I, your servant, know by the spirit that you have given me…”
It is Divine knowledge, which allows the individual to discern the will and purpose of YHWH, and so to choose (vb rh^B*) the right path and to reject (lit. “abhor,” vb bu^T*) the wrong. The right path fundamentally means faithfulness to YHWH. This is expressed by a traditional pair of terms—tm#a# and qd#x#.
The noun tm#a#, which is often translated flatly as “truth”, actually has a much wider range of meaning. It derives from the root /ma, which denotes being firm; thus tm#a# fundamentally means “firmness”, often in the sense of being sound, secure, trustworthy. The parallel root qdx denotes what is “straight” or “right”. The derived noun qd#x# is typically translated “justice” in the social-ethical sphere, and “righteousness” in the religious-moral sphere; I tend to render it more fundamentally as “right(ness)”. The contrast with what is “firm” and “straight/right” is, naturally enough, lw#u*, meaning “crookedness” —i.e., bending or deviating from the right norm.
The use of the construct expression “spirit of knowledge” here may be inspired by its occurrence in Isa 11:2, along with the related constructs “spirit of wisdom” and “spirit of understanding”, which also appear in the Qumran texts. There is a strong noetic and sapiential emphasis to the use of j^Wr in the Qumran writings, as there is, indeed, in the New Testament Scriptures. As we proceed in these notes, certain more precise parallels will be mentioned. Other occurrences of the expression “spirit of knowledge” (tud jwr) are found throughout the texts (e.g., 1QS 4:4; 1QSb 5:25; 4Q161 8-10 12), and will be looked at in turn.
The idiom of God favoring someone with a spirit, using a collocation of the verb /n~j* (with suffix) with the noun j^Wr, also occurs in other texts—1QSb 2:24; 1QHa 8:27; 4Q504 4 5; 11Q5 19:14. The ability of the chosen individual, so favored by God, to hate crookedness, as a result of his portion in firmness (truth) and rightness, is emphasized (in comparable terms) in 1QS 4:24. Cf. Tigchelaar, p. 190.
In line 37b, the hymnist goes on to express his love for YHWH, recognizing (again) that his ability to remain faithful (and choose to follow the right path), is because of the way that the Creator God has shown him favor, in His gracious mercy and love. Another important theme that we have encountered in these hymns is an emphasis on the weakness and mortality of the created being, which requires a special gift from God in order to know and understand the truth. This is expressed in lines 38-39f, though the final two fragmentary lines (40-41) are a bit difficult to interpret.
As we turn to column VII, the first 11 lines are almost completely missing, so it is impossible to know for certain whether the hymn of 6:34-41 continues into the next column (or how far it might extend). A new hymn certainly begins at line 21, but the status of the prior lines 12-20 is less clear. Line 12 may begin a new section, and the DJD editors (cf. also Schuller/Newsom) interpret it this way, restoring the opening words of the line (according to my translation) as: “Blessed are you, Mighty (One) Most High who by…”.
Whether or not 7:12-20 belongs to the same hymn as 6:34-41, there is a continuation of theme, as the hymnist praises God again for the knowledge and understanding He has given. The specific term used here in line 12 lkc (vb lk^c*, Hiphil), denoting a practical kind of wisdom or understanding, often translated (in ethical terms) as “prudence”, or noetically as “insight”. The nouns lk#c# and tu^D^ are paired in line 15. The noun “spirit” does not occur here, but it may perhaps be inferred from the expression “spring/fountain of your strength”, water-imagery being traditionally applied to the Spirit of God in Old Testament and Jewish tradition.
People who have not been so chosen (and favored) by God, are not able to understand the wondrous things that He has done (lines 14ff). But the chosen ones, recognizing what God has given to them, are quite aware, and feel compelled to praise Him fully (thus these Hodayot hymns).
In lines 17-20, the protagonist positions himself as belonging to a community of the faithful. These elect/chosen ones are identified as those having knowledge (lit. “knowing [one]s,” <yudy), and who are instructed by God. Almost certainly, the Community of the Qumran texts is in view, with the hymnist/protagonist likely identifying himself as a lyk!c=m^ for the Community (cf. line 21)—viz., one who is specially gifted by God to instruct and guide the other members in the way of God’s wisdom. The reference in line 18, to the Community “recounting together the knowledge of God”, may allude to the communal worship setting of these very hymns.
Like the chosen individuals, the Community of such persons is to be distinguished from the rest of humankind. Only they are able to understand and to walk in the knowledge of God. This is expressed in line 19:
“…in the assembly of[…] and our offspring you have made to understand…in the midst of the sons of man”
Schuller/Newsom = Eileen M. Schuller and Carol A. Newsom, The Hodayot (Thanksgiving Psalms): A Study Edition of 1QHa, Early Judaism and Its Literature Number 36 (Society of Biblical Literature: 2012)
DJD XL = Discoveries in the Judean Desert, Vol. XL: 1QHodayota, with Incorporation of 1QHodayotb and 4QHodayota-f, by Hartmut Stegemann with Eileen Schuller, translations of texts by Carol Newsom (Clarendon Press: 2009).
Tigchelaar = Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, “Historical Origins of the Early Christian Concept of the Holy Spirit: Perspectives from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” in The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity, Ekstasis series, eds. Jörg Frey and John R. Levison (De Gruyter: 2014)