May 17: Mark 13:11; Matt 10:19-20; Lk 12:11-12

In discussing the saying on the Holy Spirit in Mark 3:28-29 par (cf. the previous days’ notes), I pointed out the distinctive setting of the Lukan version (Lk 12:10). It so happens that this section (Lk 12:8-12) contains another reference to the Holy Spirit (v. 12), which I will be examining today.

Mark 13:11; Matthew 10:19-20; Luke 12:11-12

This saying is part of instruction given by Jesus to his disciples, relating to the persecution that he declares (and predicts) that his followers will face. In Mark, it is part of the so-called Eschatological (“Olivet”) Discourse (Mk 13)—a collection of sayings and teachings with an eschatological theme and orientation, set during Jesus’ final days in Jerusalem. Mark 13:9-13 summarizes the persecution which will come upon believers; the corresponding section in Luke’s version of the ‘Discourse’ (Lk 21) is found in vv. 12-19, that of Matthew in Matt 24:9-14, both with a number of significant differences. Here are the three versions side by side (marked by ellipses):

Mark 13:9-13 Matt 24:9-14 Luke 21:12-19
“…they will give you along into (their place)s of sitting-together {sanhedrins} and (their place)s of gathering-together {synagogues} (and) you will be beaten, and upon [i.e. before] governors and you will be (made to) stand, for my sake, unto [i.e. as] a witness to them…and when they shall lead you, giving you along, do not be concerned before(hand) (about) what you should speak, but whatever should be given to you in that hour, this you should speak—for it is not you (who are) the (one)s speaking, but the holy Spirit. … And you will be hated under [i.e. by] all people through my name. But the (one) remaining under [i.e. enduring] unto completion, this (one) will be saved.” “Then they will give you along into distress/oppression and will kill you off, and you will be hated under [i.e. by] all the nations through my name. … but the (one) remaining under [i.e. enduring] unto completion, this (one) will be saved….” “…they will cast their hands upon you and pursue (you), giving (you) along into th(eir place)s of gathering-together {synagogues} and guard-rooms [i.e. prisons], leading (you) away upon [i.e. before] kings and governers, for my name’s sake—and it will step away [i.e. turn out] for you into a witness. Set then in your hearts not to have care [i.e. give thought] before(hand) to giving account of (yourselves), for I will give you (a) mouth and wisdom, for which all the (one)s stretched (out) against you will not have power to stand against or say (anything) against (you). …and you will be hated under [i.e. by] all through my name…(but) in your remaining under [i.e. enduring] you will acquire your souls.”

Matthew’s version effectively omits the italicized portion corresponding to the Holy Spirit saying (in Mark). However, a similar saying is found in Matt 10:17-20 with a parallel in Luke 12:11-12. It would appear that it has been preserved separately in two strands of tradition, presumably deriving from a single saying (or group of sayings) by Jesus. According to the standard critical view, Matt 10:17-20 / Lk 12:11-12 are part of the so-called “Q” material; Luke has made use of both Mark (with some modification) and Q, while Matthew has preserved only the Q version of the saying. The substantial differences between the version in Lk 21:14-15 and Mk 13:11 can be explained several ways:

    • Luke has reworked the Markan version, using his own wording (cf. Acts 6:10)
    • Luke has substituted in an entirely different (third) saying/version (“L”)
    • Mark has modified a saying corresponding to the Lukan version, substituting in a saying akin to Matt 10:17-20.
    • Luke and Mark (independently) preserve variant forms of the same Synoptic tradition

The most notable difference is that in Mark 13:11 the Holy Spirit is identified as the source of inspiration; in Luke 21:14-15, Jesus declares that he himself (“I” e)gw/ emphatic) will give his followers the ability to speak. Of course, Luke also preserves a version of the saying which emphasizes the role of the Spirit, Lk 12:11-12, which I here present in comparison with the ‘parallel’ in Matt 10:17-20:

Luke 12:11-12Matt 10:17-20
“And when they carry [i.e. bring] you in upon the(ir place)s of gathering-together {synagogues} and the(ir) chiefs and the(ir) authorities, do not be concerned (as to) how or (by) what you should give account of (yourselves), or what you should say—for the holy Spirit will teach you in that hour the (thing)s it is necessary (for you) to say.”“…they will give you along into (their place)s of sitting-together {sanhedrins} and in the(ir place)s of gathering-together {synagogues}…. but when they give you along, do not be concerned (as to) how or what you should speak, for you will be given in that hour what you should speak—for you are not the (one)s speaking, but the Spirit of your Father (is) the (one) speaking in you.”

Again there are a number of minor differences—Matthew’s version is quite close to Mk 13:11, and may represent the same saying/version set in a different location. Interestingly, Luke does not include here the specific idea of inspiration—that is, of the Spirit actually speaking through believers—even though we see this idea illustrated quite often throughout Luke-Acts. Instead, in Luke’s version here Jesus declares that the Holy Spirit will teach his followers what they are to say. This reflects a different theme in Luke-Acts—that of the guidance of the Spirit. Both of these themes will be discussed further in upcoming notes.

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