Having examined the eschatology of Jesus as recorded in the (Synoptic) Gospels, as well as that expressed by the early Christian preaching in the book of Acts, it is now time to turn our attention to the Pauline Letters, and to give consideration to the eschatology of Paul, as studied through his letters.
One fact we may note before proceeding, is that, with regard to the eschatology found in the letters, there is surprisingly little that is unique to Paul’s thought and manner of expression (the discussion in Romans 9-11 being a notable exception). On the whole, he follows the traditional eschatology of early Christians, very much in accord with what we find in the preaching recorded in the book of Acts (cf. the previous two articles). What is distinctive is the way that Paul develops the tradition, giving added theological (and Christological) weight to the basic contours of the eschatological expectation of 1st century Christians. The main eschatological components handled and addressed by Paul in his letters are:
- The return of Jesus to earth (i.e. the Parousia)
- The great Judgment by God on humankind, and
- The Resurrection (spec. of believers)
It is the last of these which is given most attention by Paul, since it relates to a fundamental (theological) aspect of his understanding of the religious identity of believers in Christ—namely, our identification (and union) with Jesus in both his death and resurrection (see especially Romans 6:3-4). This will be discussed in more detail as we encounter the various passages.
Any comprehensive treatment of Paul’s letters must always take into account certain critical questions of authorship. In particular, many (if not most) critical commentators regard a number of the canonical letters as pseudonymous. Among such scholars, there is general agreement that the Pastoral Letters (1-2 Timothy, Titus) and Ephesians are pseudonymous; others believe that Colossians and/or 2 Thessalonians are as well. For my part, entirely on objective grounds, I consider 2 Thessalonians and Colossians as genuinely Pauline, and will treat them as such in these articles (while occasionally mentioning certain critical objections). More substantial questions surround the Pastorals (esp. 1 Timothy) and Ephesians, in terms of vocabulary, style, and points of emphasis. I do not intend to address any of these, except in passing; however, as a point of procedure, in deference to the (critical) questions, I will treat the eschatology in Ephesians and the Pastorals last among the letters of Paul.
Here is an outline of the articles:
- 1 & 2 Thessalonians:
- Part 1: References in 1 Thessalonians, and 2 Thess 1:5-10; with a special note on 1 Thess 2:14-16
- Part 2: 1 Thess 4:13-5:11
- Part 3: 2 Thess 2:1-12
- 1 & 2 Corinthians:
- Part 1: Survey of the Corinthian correspondence
- Part 2: Key passages examined in detail
- Part 3: The Resurrection in 1 Corinthians 15
- Part 1: Survey of passages
- Part 2: Development of the Resurrection theme
- Part 3: Romans 9-11 (esp. chap. 11)
- Galatians, Philippians, Philemon, and Colossians
- Ephesians and the Pastoral Letters