Having discussed the first vision of chapter 13 (the creature from the Sea, vv. 1-10) in the previous two notes, we now turn to the second vision—the creature from the Earth (vv. 11-18). As most commentators recognize, this pairing of creatures, from the land and sea, respectively, draws upon the Jewish tradition of Behemoth and Leviathan. The pairing is first seen in Job 40:15-24 and chapter 41. The Hebrew hm*h@B= (plural tomh@B=) appears to be a general word referring to cattle or other large (land) animals (“beasts”); its ultimate derivation is uncertain, though the Old Testament usage corresponds to the earlier Canaanite (Ugaritic). In Job 40:15, the plural form should probably be understood as an intensive (or extensive) plural, indicating an especially large and powerful creature, perhaps alluding specifically to the Egyptian hippopotamus. By contrast, the Leviathan (Hebrew /t*y`w+l!) is more properly identified as a mythic/cosmic creature, known from the Ugaritic texts (L£t¹n¥), where, in the cosmological Baal ‘Epic’ (III.3.41-42; V.1.1-2), it is the name of a “twisting” Snake-like figure (with seven heads) associated with the primeval Sea (personified, Yamm). Admittedly, the Dragon and ‘Beast from the Sea’ are much closer to Leviathan than the ‘Beast from the Earth’ is to Behemoth. However, the general pattern likely prevails here, given the coupling of Behemoth and Leviathan in various eschatological/apocalyptic Jewish texts of the first centuries B.C./A.D. (e.g., 1 Enoch 60:7-9, 24; 2 Baruch 29:4; 2/4 Esdras 6:49-52). For more on the Sea and “Leviathan”, see my article “The Conflict with the Sea in Ancient Near Eastern Myth”.
The vision in Rev 13:11-18 focuses on the Earth-creature. The study of this vision will be broken up into three notes, according to the following outline:
- Description of the creature—vv. 11-12
- Its action: The image of the Sea-creature—vv. 13-15
- Its action: The ‘mark’ of the Sea-creature—vv. 16-18
“And I saw another wild animal stepping up out of the earth, and he held two horns, like a lamb, and (yet) he spoke as (the) Fabulous Creature (did).” (v. 11)
The initial description of the Earth-creature follows the pattern of the Sea-creature vision (v. 1); both ultimately derive from the Daniel 7 vision of four beasts (hybrid animal-creatures) coming up from the sea—note the parallel of rising from the sea/earth in 7:3, 17. Unlike the Sea-creature, the Earth-creature has just two horns (and, it would seem, a single head). As noted previously, the horn is a traditional image symbolizing power. It is hard to say just what the number two here signifies, though there is likely an allusion to the two-horned ram in the vision of Daniel 8. This implies that, though he otherwise resembles a lamb, the Earth-creature, with his powerful horns, is an aggressive, dangerous, and violent figure. Almost certainly there is an intentional contrast of this lamb-like creature with the Lamb symbolizing the exalted Jesus; it is part of the same evil parody of Jesus represented by the Sea-creature (cf. the prior note). While the holy ones and heavenly beings exalt the Lamb, this other evil “lamb” exalts the Sea-creature (and the Dragon). This is indicated in the final phrase of the verse—kai\ e)la/lei w($ dra/kwn, which could be understood two ways:
- “and he spoke as a fabulous (creature)” —that is, despite the simple/gentle appearance as a lamb, the creature actually speaks like a “fabulous creature” or dragon (i.e. serpent). This may reflected the shrewdness and cunning of the Genesis 3 Serpent; cp. also the proverbial sayings by Jesus in Matt 7:15; 10:16.
- and he spoke as the Fabulous (Creature)” —in other words, he imitates the great evil Dragon of these visions.
The latter interpretation is to be preferred. The lamb-like Earth-creature, despite his appearance, speaks with the voice of the seven headed Dragon. The inference is both to his evil character, and also that, by his actions, he serves as an ally of the Dragon.
“And he makes all the e)cousi/a of the first wild animal (function) in his sight; and he makes the Earth, and the (one)s putting down house [i.e. dwelling] in her, (so) that they will kiss toward [i.e. worship] the first wild animal, of whom his strike of death was attended to [i.e. healed].” (v. 12)
Here, in this verse, we have a summary encapsulation of the relationship between the Dragon, Sea-creature, and Earth-creature. The noun e)cousi/a, which I have left untranslated in these passages, signifies a person’s authority or ability to do something, often in the context of being granted it by a superior. In the first vision (v. 4), it was stated that the Sea-creature’s authority was given to it by the Dragon; now, we see that the Earth-creature similarly acts on the Sea-creature’s behalf. It is not said that the Sea-creature gives authority/ability to the Earth-creature; rather, it is that the two creatures function in tandem (though with the Sea-creature as the superior), operating in two different domains—the Earth and Sea, respectively. This will be commented on further below.
This enactment of the Sea-creature’s authority is aimed at one primary purpose: to make everyone living on earth to worship and venerate the Sea Creature. Mention is made again of the apparently fatal wound (“blow of death”) on one of the Sea-creature’s heads (v. 3), which had been attended to, and was thus healed. As I discussed in the prior note, while this detail may be an allusion to an early form of the Nero-legend, its main significance is as an evil parody of Jesus’ death and resurrection. Bringing out the detail here only emphasizes the parallel with Jesus. Believers everywhere worship the Lamb (Jesus) that was slain; similarly, all other people (non-believers) on earth worship the Creature that seemed to have been slain—and a different “lamb” works to bring about this wicked parody.
In the next note, we will examine in more detail just how the Earth-creature works to ensure that everyone on earth worships the Sea-creature. However, in conclusion, I feel it is necessary to give a bit more consideration to the relationship between these two creatures, in terms of their localization in the Sea (qa/lassa) and Earth (gh=).
Earth and sea were mentioned together earlier in the book (e.g., 5:13; 7:1-3), but as a specific pair first in the central vision of chapter 12 (v. 12, part of the heavenly voice of praise). That warning served as an ominous foreshadowing of these two chapter 13 visions, introduced by the notice (according to the best textual evidence) that the Dragon went and stood at the edge (lit. “sand”) of the Sea (v. 18). Thus, the Dragon was positioned at a point, on a strip of territory, between the Earth and Sea. This localization perhaps echoes that of the heavenly Messenger in 10:1-17, who stands with one foot on the sea and the other on the earth (v. 2, 5), thus similarly positioned between the two. While Earth and Sea are the core components of a rich ancient (Near Eastern) cosmology, here they are envisioned as a simple duality: two territories side by side with a boundary in between. While the creature from the Sea exercises authority and control of the territory of the Earth, he does so through the services of the creature from the Earth. Since that second creature comes from the Earth, he is more closely connected with it, and thus can more effectively establish the Sea-creature’s control over it.
As we continue through these notes, both here in chapter 13 and the subsequent visions involving the two creatures, the specific symbolism will be explored further and in more detail. In particular, it will be necessary to consider to what extent it is meant to symbolize the (actual) situation facing first century Christians in Asia Minor (the setting of the book), and to what extent it encompasses a more general religious-spiritual symbolism which can be applied to the situation of believers in all ages.